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2013 Abstracts

Annual Meeting of the Nevada Archaeological Association (Las Vegas, Nevada; April 2013)

Following “Lost” Footsteps: Recent Reconnaissance Surveys near Pueblo Grande de Nevada

Eric Klucas

Statistical Research, Inc., under contract with the Bureau of Reclamation, recently completed a Class III cultural resources inventory of 4,506 acres in and around the Moapa Valley near Overton, Nevada. This project represents the first large-scale intensive survey of a significant portion of the area around Pueblo Grande de Nevada, commonly referred to as the “Lost City” complex, a major concentration of habitation sites attributed to the Virgin Anasazi. With the exception of excavations carried out by the Department of Anthropology at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas since 2006, SRI’s Reclamation –sponsored survey has provided the first detailed look at the area around the Lost City complex in nearly 60 years, and perhaps the first archaeological study of the areas away from the more conspicuous habitation sites.  Here, we present an initial summary of these investigations, with an eye to how these data can help build a more comprehensive view of prehistory in this important area.

Annual Meeting of the Arizona Archaeological Councel (Mesa, Arizona; October 2013)

Communalism, Household, and Power in the Pre-Classic Tucson Basin

William M. Graves and Eric Eugene Klucas

During the Pioneer Period in the Tucson Basin, the development of an apparent Hohokam communal social order can be seen in the widespread distribution of distinctive material-culture traits, site structure, and settlement patterns. By the Sedentary period, variability in household production, consumption, size, and exchange suggests that households were able to acquire power differentially and social inequality becomes increasing entrenched in Hohokam society. In this presentation, we explore this seemingly paradoxical relationship between communalism and the rise of inequality among the Tucson Basin Hohokam by examining excavated data from a number of sites in the northern and Southern Tucson Basin.

19th Annual Meeting of the American Cultural Resources Association (Washington D.C., Oct 2013)

Session "State of the Industry: The Business of CRM

Moderator: Teresita Majewski (Statistical Research, Inc.)
Vernon Research, Ian Burrow (Vice President for Government Relations), Donn R. Grenda and Michael Heilen (Statistical Research, Inc.), & Cultural Heritage Partners, PLLC

In 2013, ACRA commissioned two very important surveys that provide critical information for characterizing the CRM industry. ACRA's Salary and Membership Survey was again conducted by Vernon Research Group, and it provides important longitudinal data about the business of CRM, not only for the industry but for others who need to understand the nature and impact of our industry. Also this year, ACRA's Government Relations Committee and Cultural Heritage Partners conducted a directed survey that provided industry metrics that were used to prepare a handout explaining the industry to legislators. The panel for this session brings together the people who conceived of, implemented, and administered the two surveys, as well as those who interpreted the findings. After an overview of the two surveys and their findings, there will be an opportunity for questions and discussion.

19th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologist (Pilsen, Czech Republic; Sept 2013)

Session "The roles and benefits of professional associations in Europe and Beyond"

Organized by Gerry Wait

Archaeological bodies and organisations exist in a variety of types all over Europe – and beyond. In some countries there are ‘professional associations’ – for archaeologists and other disciplines. Such associations have a particular role in self-regulation, and provide a range of benefits to the wider public and to their members. It is commonly argued that the need for professional associations is not universal, and that they are only needed in certain cultural, legislative and judicial traditions. But is that true? This session will focus on the special characteristics of professional associations – where professional members voluntarily subscribe to an ethical code, comply with a requirement to demonstrate competence, are prepared to be investigated (and punished) by their colleagues for transgressions, and agree to place the interests of the public and clients above their own. It will explore whether this sort of professional self-discipline is only useful where regulation of archaeology by the state is limited or absent, or whether the principles might have wider application to a more prominent profession producing more valuable benefits to the general public in whose name most archaeologists ultimately work.

Parsing Ethics: Why the SAA needs RPA

Jeffrey Altschul and Lynne Sebastian (SRIF)

In the wake of the passage of laws and regulations affecting archaeological resources in the 1960s, many American archaeologists worried that the lack of an enforceable ethical code and research standards would lead to a decline in the quality of archaeological research and a disillusioned public. In 1976, the Society of Professional Archaeologists (SOPA) was established to remedy this situation. SOPA had strict membership criteria, with experience and education having to be documented for each subfield of the discipline, coupled with a grievance procedure designed to adjudicate allegations of non compliance with a code of ethics and standards of research performance. SOPA was never embraced by American archaeologists.

The Society for American Archaeology (SAA) is one of the largest and oldest archaeological organizations in the Americas. In the 1990s the SAA spent years revising its ethical principles, culminating in their formal adoption in 1996. These principles, however, are not enforceable. In 1998, the SAA led the effort to transform SOPA into the Register of Professional Archaeologists (RPA). Why SAA needed and continues to need RPA and the consequences of that decision are the subjects of this paper.

Click here for the PowerPoint Presentation!

The Hybrid Nature of the American Cultural Resources Association: Professional Organization or Trade Association?

Terry Majewski, Donn Grenda, & Michael Heilen

Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) began to develop as a profession and as an industry in the United States in the 1960s when key legislation was passed at the federal level. Practitioners realized that already established professional organizations, with more scholarly roots, could not fully serve the complex needs of a profession/industry that focused on both heritage advocacy and business. The American Cultural Resources Association (ACRA) formed in 1995 and today has over 150 firms as members. While difficult to define precisely, ACRA is essentially a hybrid between a professional organization and a trade association. ACRA’s goal is to be the voice of the industry and to provide a united front in the face of legislative threats to the resources and to the legislative framework that protects them. Using the notion of “disciplinarity,” we review and evaluate ACRA’s efforts to support and promote the CHM industry at a national level. ACRA’s activities include educating government officials, lobbying Congress in support of preservation and the industry, partnering with a heritage preservation legal firm, holding conferences and workshops, liaising with related organizations that have common or overlapping purposes, collecting metrics on the industry and its practitioners, and establishing and encouraging best practices.

Enigmas and Variation: Thoughts on the Function of Archaeological Associations in Europe

Gerry Wait (Nexus)

Session "Indigenous Communities in Conquered Landscapes"

Organized by Aleks Pluskowski (University of Reading, UK), Heiki Valk (University of Tartu, Estonia) and Maciej Karczewski (University of Bialystok, Poland)

Where colonisation has been accompanied by military conquest, it typically results in social and political reorganisation, the introduction of new cultural elements and shifts in the exploitation of colonised landscapes and seascapes. The cultural encounters between colonising and indigenous populations can result in the adoption and adaptation of select cultural elements, which are particularly well represented in material culture. Nonetheless, the colonising perspective is often over-represented in historically documented societies, where social reorganisation following conquest and colonisation was framed within imported political, economic and ideological structures, and accompanied by technological change and ethnic reconfiguration.
However, indigenous communities also had opportunities to select which cultural elements were adopted. The most important was expressed as ideological contest and inter-ideological relations; for example, in eastern Baltic Europe in the 13th century or the Caribbean in the 16th century, a clash of incoming Christian European and indigenous, non-Christian worldviews. In these cases, whilst the process of colonisation resulted in the development of towns, the indigenous population remained largely confined to the countryside. Rural communities are typically the most conservative and the longest to resist incoming political and religious trends, as well as imported fashions and technologies. So whilst cultural changes following conquest were reinforced by political, ideological and military hegemony, to what extent did this have an impact on indigenous communities, particularly those situated at the physical fringes of the new regime’s control? Moreover, what was the nature of this impact?

This session proposes to explore the material culture and practices of indigenous communities within conquered landscapes of different regions and time periods, in order to explore the value of a different perspective on the process of colonisation and the nuances of cultural encounters in regions of conflict.

Responses to Colonialism in the Native American Village in Southern California

Richard Ciolek-Torello, Donn Grenda, John Douglass, & Seetha Reddy

Indigenous peoples’ responses to colonialism have been highly varied through time and space. These responses are evidenced in the archaeological record by material culture, food remains, and burial practices. We report on the Gabrielino of the Ballona Wetlands in west Los Angeles to Spanish conquest in the late 18th century, a Native American group that resided on the coast of southern California and came into contact with Europeans when Spain established Missions San Gabriel and San Fernando and the pueblo of Los Angeles between 1769 and 1797. In the past, evidence regarding the impact of Colonialism on Native Americans in southern California has derived from Natives residing at missions, ranches, or other Spanish settlements. The Colonial period assemblage from the Ballona, however, is from an isolated aboriginal settlement occupied contemporaneously with the Spanish settlements. Rather than simple conquest and acculturation to Hispanic lifeways, this evidence suggests a process of ethnogenesis took place, in which a new and distinctive cultural identity developed through hybridization with neighboring Native groups and Hispanic colonists. Evidence from prehistoric sites in the Ballona also provides a long-term perspective that places the changes brought about by Colonialism against a background of long-term adaptation.

A Slave who would be King: Oral Tradition and Archaeology of the Recent Colonial Past

Gerry Wait (Nexus)

Session "Towards a real representation and interpretation of spatio-temporal data in Archaeological Record"

Organized by Alfredo Maximiano Castillejo (Universidad de Cantabria, Spain), Enrique Cerrillo Cuenca (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain), Xavier Rodier (Université François Rabelais-CNRS, France) and Bastien Lefebvre (Université de Tolouse II-Le Mirail, France)

Nowadays, an increasing interest for spatio-temporal analysis in archaeological issues can be appreciated in archaeological literature (i.e. Johnson 2004; Santiago 2008; Huisman et alli 2009; Llobera 2011, among others). The continuously evolving field of computing applications in Archaeology is here presented as the most opportune, but not the only, framework to manage spatio-temporal data in terms of representation (for instance graphical visualisation in a GIS application) and analysis. On the other hand, the archaeological record seems to be an optimal background to implement spatio-temporal methods, since due to its nature, archaeological features can be represented in terms of location, spatial relationships, and temporal components (distributions or artefacts, structures, etc).

In this regard, an extensive spatial-temporal analytical methodology is being applied in others social disciplines (i.e. “Spatio-Temporal Kernel Density Estimation” or “Spatio-temporal Scan Statistics” in Nakaya & Yano 2010). Nevertheless, these issues have not been fully implemented in archaeology because we probably cannot define our spatial (and temporal) problems in adequate directions. Under this panorama, it would be interesting to re-formulate our perception of variance in space and time; and what is more important, we should be able to define a heuristic solution about our spatial and temporal problems in key of perception and interpretation of this variance.

For example, an important subject is the massive incorporation of calibrated dates, which offer a temporal congruence in terms of numerical chronology (in front of classical chrono-cultural series). This concern could represent an improvement to establish a chronological definition of archaeological events in terms of succession. But are we managing the integration of chronologies with spatial data in a coherent manner?

Focuses in this session are:
i. To discuss the opportunity to establish stronger links between archaeological theory and methods, regarding to the analysis of spatio-temporal data.
ii. To deliberate about possibility of spatio-temporal methodology in archaeological circumstances, independently on the use, regardless of the use of concrete computing solutions (GIS, statistical packages, etc).
iii. To generate an open discussion on a adequate and congruent way of thinking about spatial-temporal variance. Moreover, how consolidate the approach and limits of this proposals.

Cases studies are welcome on this session: intra-site analysis, surface survey, landscape analysis and any other archaeological field that could be analysed through spatio-temporal variables. Oral presentation should focus on which could be the best way to illustrate the real opportunities of space-time perspective in Archaeology. In this sense, we are interested in contributions that put the stress on theoretical reflections (from archaeological objects to spatial and time information) , as well as methodological arguments (mathematical algorithms, analytical visualisation procedures…)..

Site Structure and Domestic Organization in the Coastal Shell Midden in Southern California

Richard Ciolek-Torello, Phillip Leckman, William Hayden (SWCA), & Stephen Norris

The investigation of prehistoric site structure and domestic organization has often depended upon finding houses. Unfortunately, the ephemeral architecture and poor preservation of most coastal hunter-gatherer sites in southern California leave little evidence of houses. Hearths, caches, ritual features, and refuse deposits are the only tangible remains of prehistoric habitation. More sophisticated spatial-temporal analytic tools are required to examine the spatial relationships between these types of features than those found within the well-defined boundaries of houses. In this presentation, we discuss a case study in which spatial-temporal analytic tools are used to examine hundreds of domestic features found in a large midden site. A large suite of radiocarbon dates was used to determine which features were contemporary. A hypothetical occupation surface was then calculated using aggregates of the individual elevations of these features. Surface interpolation was done using ESRI Geostatistical Analyst Tools extension for ESRI ArcGIS. Finally, statistically significant spatial clusters of features associated with this surface were identified using several methods of point-pattern analysis, including Ripley’s K and reconstructions of estimated feature density. These clusters are interpreted behaviorally as potential household units, and examined in terms of cross-cultural research into hunter-gatherer family structure, domestic organization, and group dynamics.

Round Table "Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe...and of the World

Organized by Gavin MacGregor (Northlight Heritage, UK), Kenneth Aitchison (York Archaeological Trust, UK) and Heleen van Londen (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

Discovering the Archaeologists of Europe is a project supported by the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union that is bringing together participants from nineteen European states to identify how archaeology is defined as a profession in those countries. It is seeking to find out what they do, how they are qualified and rewarded, and most importantly, how to maintain the skills of professional archaeology in the post-2008 economic situation we all find ourselves in.

This session seeks to expand discussion beyond the project participants, to bring together anyone who has anything to say about employment and training in professional archaeology. Contributions are sought from all countries in Europe – and beyond – and from all sectors of archaeology, whether applied, academic, fieldwork focussed or administrative, looking to stimulate discussion on how archaeology can be delivered and sustained.

Characterizing the U.S. Cultural Heritage Management Industry with Independently Collected and Analyzed Data

Donn Grenda, Michael Heilen, & Terry Majewski

Since 1995, the American Cultural Resources Association (ACRA) has been the national trade association for Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) firms in the United States, where projects are generally undertaken because of several pieces of federal legislation enacted decades ago. ACRA promotes the common interests of CHM firms, and since the recession began has prioritized political advocacy and education regarding best practices as its primary activities.  In 2013, ACRA carried out two surveys. One was designed to collect recent data rapidly on industry metrics, including firm size, employee educational levels, and firm revenues. These data made it possible for the first time to quantify the American CHM industry in terms that politicians, making hard decisions on the basis of often limited information, can use effectively. The other survey, conducted previously in 2005, 2007, and 2009, focused on regional patterns of annual sales, firm composition, business practices, employee benefits and compensation, and how ACRA can benefit the industry. The independently collected and analyzed results provide essential longitudinal information on the state of the CHM industry. This paper focuses on the results and challenges of conducting these surveys, which provide qualitative as well as quantitative views of CHM and its practitioners.

Discovering Archaeologists of the Americas

Jeffrey Altschul

Click here for the PowerPoint Presentation!

78th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (Honolulu, Hawaii; April 2013)

Reflections on Tortolita Phase Community Integration in the Northern Tucson Basin

Eric Klucas

Archaeological excavations at the Richter Site (AZ AA:12:252[ASM]), alarge multicomponent habitation site in the Northern Tucson Basin, have produced large contiguous exposures dating to the Tortolita Phase (ca. A.D. 500-700) ideally suited for an examination of early Pioneer eriod site structure. The excavated sample comprised a moderately large burial population exceeding 240 individual graves. The burials were clustered in what appear to be true “cemeteries” in that the location and function of the space was maintained for an extended period of time. In this paper I explore how mortuary behavior, especially the location and maintenance of cemetery areas, functions as a means of fostering and maintaining a shared identity among group members. These approaches focus on the information-carrying potential of the cemetery as an element of the built environment, with the cemetery functioning as a physical manifestation of the group’s history. The data from the Richter site suggest that while the cemeteries demonstrated a common community identity, individual household identities were maintained as well.

The State of Mongolian Cultural Heritage Today

Richard Ciolek-Torello -- Forum Moderator

Home is Where the Hearth Is: Household and Domestic Organization at Grasshopper

Richard Ciolek-Torello

Domestic Organization at Grasshopper When I joined the Archaeological Field School at Grasshopper Pueblo in the early 1970s, I became part of a large research team dedicated to reconstructing prehistoric social organization using the "New Archaeology" approach. Many students and instructors a t Grasshopper were studying mortuary and architectural patterns as means to identify different aspects of the organization of this mountain community. My interest turned to domestic organization. Previous studies suggested architecture might serve as a goo d indicator of the original function of rooms, but house function often changed during the developmental cycle of the domestic groups that resided in them. Fortunately, Grasshopper had a wealth of primary and de facto refuse associated with residential act ivities left in situ on the floors of dozens of rooms. These remains provided both more direct and detailed evidence of the structure of domestic activities and an independent source of data that could be used to test models of domestic organization develo ped from architectural evidence. Although my subsequent research has not taken me back to the study of pueblos, the lessons I learned at Grasshopper have proven invaluable in my professional career, much of which has focused on Hohokam and Salado household s in desert settings.

Temporal Frequency Distributions of Alluvium in the American Southwest: Taphonomic, Paleohydaulic, and Demographic Implications

Jesse Ballenger (SRI) and Jonathan Mabry (HPO, City of Tucson)

The use of radiocarbon frequency distributions to reconstruct prehistoric human and animal populations must account for taphonomic loss and other factors. Researchers recently proposed a correction for “taphonomic bias” that is based on the radiocarbon frequency of a global sample of volcanic deposits. Analysis of radiocarbon dates sa mpled from the alluvium of the San Pedro and Santa Cruz rivers and their tributaries in southeastern Arizona shows that discovery and scientific biases also play an important role in the creation of radiocarbon frequency distributions, and that the rate of “taphonomic bias” in prehistory is not predicted by the radiocarbon frequency of volcanic deposits.

Late Prehistoric Communal Bison Hunting along the Northern Rocky Mountain Front: Implications for Territory Formation among Big-Game Hunters

Jesse Ballenger (SRI) and Maria Zedeño (University of Arizona)

Detailed information on the design and construction of multiple driveline complexes with associated domestic and non - domestic facilities along the Two Medicine River Valley in north - central Montana provide a solid foundation for revisiting deeply set notio ns of terrestrial big - game hunter territorial organization and its social and ideological implications. We present a unique valley - scale analysis of the layout and construction of 11 complexes, which were built and utilized between ca. AD 1000 - 1800, and de rive preliminary conclusions about the nature and politics of land tenure among communal bison hunters.

Multicomponent Sites along the U.S. Highway 491 Corridor, from Twin Lakes to Sheep Spings: Basketmaker III through Pueblo III (Poster Session)

David Unruh and Meaghan Trowbridge

Due to a proposed reconstruction of U.S. Highway 491 in McKinley and San Juan counties in New Mexico, Statistical Research, Inc. undertook data recovery operations on 26 archaeological sites. Cultural componen ts recognized on the sites span the Early Archaic through Pueblo IV periods and also include a historic Navajo presence. Excavated sites range from isolated features and small low - density artifact scatters to large habitations with multiple roomblocks and pit structures. Several large habitation sites contain multiple occupations, displaying the continuum of architectural and technological change from Basketmaker III through Pueblo II - III and on into historic Navajo times; these sites hold potential to fu rther address long - standing questions concerning cultural history and dynamic processes affecting prehistoric peoples living in the San Juan Basin. Here, we present preliminary results of selected multicomponent sites excavated during 2011 and 2012 in the context of previous work in this area.

47th Annual Meeting of the Society for California Archaeology (Berkeley, California; March 2013)

Session "Cornucopia of Ideas: Contemporary Perspectives on the Role of Food in the Lives of Coastal Native Californians"

Organized by Seetha Reddy

Food has shaped human society and is a baseline element of archaeological research. In recent years, however, perspectives on food have broadened markedly, both theoretically and methodologically. Archaeologists are increasingly interested in what the study of food can tell us about such topics as: conservation and overexploitation; fine-scale dietary differences via isotopic studies; the spatial organization of labor and settlements; and social diversity. This symposium brings together scholars using ancient foodways to explore novel topics from a variety of theoretical perspectives (evolutionary, behavioral, and historical ecology). In doing so, they are broadening our perspectives of hunter-gatherers along the California coast.

Subsistence Adaptations along the Southern California Coast

Sarah Van Galder and Richard Ciolek-Torello

This paper discusses indigenous subsistence adaptations of the southern California coast, focusing on the contrasting strategies of Gabrielino/Tongva in Los Angeles County, Luiseno and Juaneno in San Diego County and the Chumash of Ventura County. The talk emphasizes adaptations between the Intermediate through the Late Period when those along the Ventura County coast shifted strategies from a terrestrial and littoral subsistence strategy to one focused on deep sea resources. Such an adaptation never developed to the south among the Gabrielino/Tongva or the Luiseno and Juaneno. The social and economic implications of these subsistence variations will be considered.

Traditional Gathering and Decrue Cultivation: Ethnogenesis of Food during the Mision Period in Coastal California

Seetha Reddy and Virginia Popper

During the Mission period in coastal California, Native Americans dramatically altered their plant food diet, owing to the unprecedented cultural disruption caused by the arrival of Spanish and a suite of new domesticated plants and animals. Recent research is revealing that the scale and pace of these changes were highly varied within California, and we are gaining new insights into the broader social context of these changes. Notably, traditional Native foods become more that a basic necessity, and emerge as an important marker of cultural identity during these colonial times. In this paper, we will discuss major changes during the Mission Period in the nature of local plant procurement strategies.

Gabrielino/Tongva Ethnogenesis during the Mission Period: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Evidence from Santa Monica Bay (General Session 1: Current Research in Historical Archaeology)

John Douglass, Seetha Reddy, Richard Ciolek-Torello, Donn Grenda, and Patrick Stanton

The Mission period was a time of great cultural transition amongst southern California Native American groups, including the Gabrielino/Tongva. Ethnohistoric and archaeological data document transitions in traditional cultural boundaries, evolving ethnic identity and new expressions of social status and wealth, all of which were related to interaction with new colonial social political structures. This paper explores these issues to better understand the evolution of ethnogenesis during the Mission period in southern California.

Open Meeting "Women in California Archaeology Committee Meeting and Workshop"

Organized by Seetha Reddy

This first workshop by the Women in California Archaeology group will present the objectives and goals of the group and then host two main discussion panels: breaking out of stereotypes and balancing school/work and family; and career pathways (academic versus CRM). The panel will be led by WCA core committee members in an informal format and will be identifying issues and pathways to discussions.

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